You can add and remove columns from the Finder’s List View windows very easily. Just open up a window and then go to View/Show View Options. (My friend Dave likes the keyboard shortcut ⌘-J.) There you’ll find all sorts of options, including checkboxes for showing and hiding various columns.
The changes you make in the View Options panel are for only the window you’re looking at when you make those changes, unless you check “Use as Defaults.”